Previously, only warnings were given out. That changes Thursday.
The mayor calls his plan Vision Zero, with the goal of reducing traffic fatalities to zero within the next decade.
He made the announcement at a public school in Queens, across the street from where an 8-year-old was struck and killed on Northern Boulevard last month. A 51-year-old unlicensed truck driver was arrested in the incident and charged with violation of safety rules. A makeshift memorial remains at the scene.
The city has about 20 speed cameras, and de Blasio hopes state approval will come to install more.
Also, the mayor talked about increasing the size of the NYPD's highway division by 50 percent.
So far this year, 11 people have been killed in traffic accidents in the city, seven of them pedestrians.
"We're going to be very, very focused on improving safety around our schools," de Blasio said. "There are some other areas of concern, like senior centers or areas that are frequented by seniors, where there have been a number of accidents. And so I think we have a particular sensitivity to the schools, but we're going to be looking for wherever there's been a pattern."
The program, part of a comprehensive plan that includes several city agencies working together, will include educating children to cross streets safely.