The fire broke out at 7 a.m. at a five-story building at 625 West 138th Street in the Hamilton Heights section, between Riverside Drive and Broadway.
Authorities say the fire started on the third floor, then quickly spread to the fourth and fifth, fed by strong winds.
One resident and several firefighters were taken to the hospital with minor injuries.
About 140 firefighters and 38 units were assigned to the scene. The fire was placed under control at 8:46 a.m.
Sunday morning's bitter cold made the battle more difficult for the FDNY, as water coming from hoses froze and firefighters slipped on icy streets.
The Red Cross is helping families displaced by the fire.