Police say the toddler's bottle contained ammonium chloride, and a pesticide was found in the toddler's car seat.
Both the father and daughter are in critical condition.
Police say the bizarre discovery in a Five Towns parking lot in Lawrence was likely the result of "acrimony" between the man and his estranged wife.
On Monday morning, the owner of a Judaica store in Lawrence heard a horn honking in the back parking lot, and found the man in the driver's seat in obvious medical distress, asking for help.
Hatzolah volunteer medics quickly arrived to find the man passed out, and the girl in a car seat in the back. She was conscious and crying at the time.
Police say they discovered the ammonia chloride, which is the chemical in a fire extinguisher, mixed in with the baby formula in the bottle. They also found the powdered chemical throughout the car, along with a toxic pesticide called "Sevin" on the car seat.